Australian mining giant BHP Billiton Ltd. says it paid $7.8 billion in global taxes and royalties in the 2018 financial year, $3 billion more than it paid the previous year.

The figures, released Sept. 18 as the Melbourne-based company published its annual report, include more than $6 billion paid in Australia, $1.06 billion paid to Chile and $183 million paid to the U.S. — BHP’s three largest tax payment jurisdictions.

Introducing the company’s 2018 economic contribution report, Chief Financial Officer Peter Beaven said “this year, we disclose for the first time our...