The European Union’s inability to agree on taxing Internet giants like Google and Amazon shows the need for majority voting at the soon-to-be 27-member bloc, French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire said.

“Finland, Denmark, Ireland and Sweden shouldn’t be allowed to block 23 countries from imposing a tax that they think is needed and just,” Le Maire said at a press conference in Paris as he presented a French tax that would apply to about 30 Internet giants like Facebook Inc. and could raise 450 million euros ($509 million) in its first year.

France’s tax, which Le Maire called, “simple,...