The owner of a Florida package consolidation and shipping service faces a record fine after pleading guilty to felony smuggling and violating U.S. export control laws.

Eric Baird, former owner and chief executive officer of Access USA Shipping LLC, will face a $17 million penalty and a 5-year denial of export privileges, with $7 million and one year suspended, as part of his plea agreement. This will be the largest civil penalty in history paid by an individual to the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security, according to the bureau.

Access USA previously settled with BIS and agreed...