The owner of a Florida package consolidation and shipping service faces a record fine after pleading guilty to felony smuggling and violating U.S. export control laws.

Eric Baird, former owner and chief executive officer of Access USA Shipping LLC, will face a $17 million penalty and a 5-year denial of export privileges, with $7 million and one year suspended, as part of his plea agreement. This will be the largest civil penalty in history paid by an individual to...