Brett Kavanaugh and other justices appeared cautious today about overturning legal precedent, a topic that’s received close attention with the U.S. Supreme Court solidifying its conservative majority and with hot-button issues like abortion rights working their way up to the court.

Kavanaugh joined Justices Stephen G. Breyer and Sonia Sotomayor during oral argument in raising concerns in this tax dispute about when the court should ever reverse itself.

The Supreme Court has to be careful when it gets in the...