European Union finance ministers agreed to add 10 countries to a blacklist of alleged tax havens, including the United Arab Emirates and Bermuda, despite last-minute push-back by some EU nations.

The agreement means the list will now have 15 jurisdictions, triple the number of what it had before the review. It comes just over a year after the EU agreed to “name and shame” a small number of nations as part of its efforts to fight opaque practices that facilitate tax avoidance by multinationals and individuals.

The blacklist “has had a resounding effect on tax transparency and fairness worldwide,” EU...